Hydrology on Mars

Loading of the lithosphere of Mars by the Tharsis rise explains much of the global shape and long-wavelength gravity field of the planet, including a ring of negative gravity anomalies and a topographic trough around Tharsis, as well as gravity anomaly and topographic highs centered in Arabia Terra and ex- tending northward toward Utopia. The Tharsis-induced trough and antipodal high were largely in place by the end of the Noachian Epoch and exerted control on the location and orientation of valley networks. The release of carbon dioxide8 and water accompanying the emplacement of 3 10 cubic kilometers of Tharsis magmas may have sustained a warmer climate than at present, enabling the formation of ancient valley networks and fluvial landscape denudation in and adjacent to the large-scale trough.

Roger J. Phillips,1 Maria T. Zuber,2,3 Sean C. Solomon,4565 Matthew P. Golombek, Bruce M. Jakosky, W. Bruce Banerdt, David E. Smith,3 Rebecca M. E. Williams,1 Brian M. Hynek,1 Oded Aharonson,2 Steven A. Hauck II1

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